Phonetics ~ The Linguistics Zone

Wednesday, November 14, 2007

Phonetics

The study of human speech sounds is called phonetics.

Phonetic alphabets are used to represent the sounds we speak. Words can have more letters than sounds and vice versa. In English, what is written can vary greatly from what is pronounced. The number of sounds and letters in a word are not always equal.

Words that contain the same number of sounds and letters:
car
bat
stop

Words that contain more letters than sounds:
laugh
cough
where


The need for a phonetic alphabet

An example of a phonetic alphabet which is widely used is the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). Dictionaries often uses a modified version of this phonetic alphabet in their pronunciation keys, since it easier to read than IPA. By writing in a phonetic alphabet, one can determine the pronunciation of ANY word, no matter the language.

Of course, not every language uses ALL the sounds that are possible.

There exist sounds in other languages which do not occur in English. How this affects borrowed words is that we usually 'approximate' the sounds that don't exist into the closest sound the does exist in English. Example: the final consonant sound in the German word Bach is usually pronounced with a [k] sound in English, but is actually a different (although similar) sound, represented by [x] in IPA.

Conversely, there are sounds that occur in English that do not occur in other languages. Example: French does not have the "th" sound as in thin or the (IPA [θ] and [ð], respectively) so French speakers may perceive such words as having an [s] or [z] sound.

386 comments:

dingmo Ed said...

Being bilingual, I am disgusted at the English language, it doesnt make any sense. I think spanish is such a more efficient language. I can look at a word in spanish, and having never seen it before, know exactly how it sounds.

I remeber before that theres some sort of petition or society or something to change English to phonetic spelling.

msteinborn said...

English is a phonetic nightmare alright :) The fact that it contains so much vocabulary from other languages with different pronunciations for letters or letter combinations doesn't help either. But whether a language is phonetic or not doesn't seem to be a determining factor in its success. People are incredibly adaptable and will continue to do and learn things that are inefficient even if someone points out a better or more efficient way of doing them.

I work with SIL International, whose members help document and analyze unwritten languages in order to develop orthographies and literacy materials. For the above reason, we try hard to make orthographies as efficient as possible, given the limitations imposed by the governments of the countries we work in, and the desires of the language communities themselves. Our experience has been that once an orthography has been established and is in use, it is virtually impossible to improve it or correct any inefficiencies because people have gotten used to it and do not want to change it. Sometimes in the construction of the orthography, they even insist on inserting certain inefficiencies because of cultural or linguistic preferences. But human beings are incredibly intelligent and adaptable, able to learn and use even phonetically difficult and inefficient languages like English :)

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English is probably one of the more difficult languages to learn. This is in part due to the fact it comes from 30% German and 70% Latin, whereas a language like Spanish or Latin is almost entirely Latin-based.

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Even English such a complicated, it's been lingua franca. All over the world are using it.

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I've been studying Pin Ying and I love learning the phonetic spellings of Mandarin. I probably would not have been interested in Chinese otherwise.

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I think English is bit difficult than other language in terms of writing and pronouncement but for this reason we can't say that it is phonetic. Anyway good post

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swetergrl86 said...

Your post reminded of a passage from Plato and Platypus Walk into A Bar. Autological words -words that refer to themselves such as "short" which is a short word and "seventeen-lettered" which has 17 letters. Too, "polysyllabic", which is...well, you know. The other side of the coin is "heterological" where the word is a contradiction of itself: "monosyllabic" which isn't; "knock-kneed" which has no knees.

jay said...

Hii this is Maddy from India. I found this on Wikipedia.

Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone = sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). It is concerned with the actual properties of speech sounds (phones) as well as those of non-speech sounds, and their production, audition and perception, as opposed to phonology, which operates at the level of sound systems and abstract sound units (such as phonemes and distinctive features). Phonetics deals with the sounds themselves rather than the contexts in which they are used in languages. Discussions of meaning (semantics) therefore do not enter at this level of linguistic analysis.

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I agree with others, english is little difficult then others.

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well the english language is skon differently also

united states English, then British English

so that doesn't help either

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Christa said...

When I learned English in school in Sweden in the 70's, the phonetic way of doing it didn't exist yet. Or at least it wasn't implemented in the class.
But my son dealt with it and I'm not so sure it made any difference really.

To me, English have always been easy. I've got 3 more languages and my native one (Swedish) is a lot more complicated. The gramatics are very similar to the German gramatics, so for me there's a lot of words missing in English.
Makes for a different way of expression, that's for sure :)

Javier said...

English not been a phonetic language doesn't mean it is inefficient. I believe English is more efficient than Spanish, which is more complicated, for the simple reason that in English one could express the same idea with less words, that's efficiency! Dingmo ed, it is simple not possible to change a language characteristic like phonetics without changing the people who communicate through it. A mandate won't do it. work at home

Javier said...

Spanish is quite more difficult to learn for the average English speaking person than the other way around. work at home

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I remember before that theres some sort of petition or society or something to change English to phonetic spelling.

Tess said...

English is getting complicated. Changes like dreamed to dreamt, spilled to spilt. How can one keep up with this changes?

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it is virtually impossible to improve it or correct any inefficiencies because people have gotten used to it and do not want to change it. Sometimes in the construction of the orthography, they even insist on inserting certain inefficiencies because of cultural or linguistic preferences.

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English really is one of the harder languages. I am just glad I don't have to learn Russian or Chinese!

MXI said...

"Being bilingual, I am disgusted at the English language, it doesnt make any sense. I think spanish is such a more efficient language. I can look at a word in spanish, and having never seen it before, know exactly how it sounds.
"

It might be more complex and nuanced, but that allows it to express more complicated ideas, in a variety of nuances. You can't do that with all languages.

English is a far better language for things like poetry. Sure, you can write poetry in any language, but with English, a single sentence or paragraph can contain a dozen different nuances and interpretations.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
"Spanish is quite more difficult to learn for the average English speaking person than the other way around."


Id have to disagree. I thought spanish was much easier to learn, compared to other european languges like german.

Ive talked to many multilingual people who are/were learning english, and they all said english was the hardest language they learned.

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anger management said...

I agree with others, english is little difficult then others.

Tom said...

learning a new language is so exciting and useful but it is not an easy task. Perhaps it takes years to be fluent and good at 2md language. Thanks for sharing all that great info.

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Matt said...

We have some many English flavors on this planet that it is difficult to decide. I think British English is more popular and widely used.

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Dingmo, I know exactly what you are talking about! I know German, English and Polish and Polish is the most beautfil language I know. German therefor is very structured and unmistakable, when you got lucky and a dialog partner who knows the language well, too.

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English is a phonetic nightmare alright :) The fact that it contains so much vocabulary from other languages with different pronunciations for letters or letter combinations doesn't help either. But whether a language is phonetic or not doesn't seem to be a determining factor in its success.

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English is in fact the most difficult experience that I've had. I mastered Vietnamese, fluent in Spanish and French, but my English skills are a little lacking. I believe that if you don't learn English at a very young age it is very hard to get use to. So many rules and stuff to it. For some reason I always mess up on plurals....

Learn Spanish said...

English is not so difficult to learn. I guess the most difficult languages are: Chinese and Japanese

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English is a phonetic nightmare alright :) The fact that it contains so much vocabulary from other languages with different pronunciations for letters or letter combinations doesn't help either. But whether a language is phonetic or not doesn't seem to be a determining factor in its success. People are incredibly adaptable and will continue to do and learn things that are inefficient even if someone points out a better or more efficient way of doing them.

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Its very difficult for the people for whom english is not their primary language. And the difference between american english and british english makes it more difficult.

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Well I believe its easy to master phonetics of your mother tounge.

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France is very strict about how their language changes (academy Francaise). Whereas English does not have this sort of control. The perfect illustration is how American English differs so much from English English.

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Soundings of phonetic changes according to the language involved.

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