Phonetics: Why we say 'cheese' ~ The Linguistics Zone

Sunday, March 04, 2007

Phonetics: Why we say 'cheese'

Phonetics is defined as the study of sounds made in the production of human languages. It is important to note that sounds and spellings of the English language are quite different. Not all English words are spelled the way they are sounded. Words such as "through" and "night" have more letters in them than sounds. Spelling vs. sound will be brought up again, for now I want to concentrate on the basics of phonetics.

As human beings, we produce sounds using our vocal tract. Where we make the sound (known as the place of articulation) matters. For instance, the [p] and [b] sounds use the lips. I won't bore you with a full list of the locations of each of the sounds, but I'll present an interesting factoid.

When pronouncing the long E vowel sound (IPA symbol [i]), which occurs in words such as "seat" and "meet", the relative position of the tongue is toward the front of the mouth. Furthermore, the lips are not rounded when pronouncing this sound (unlike the [o] sound in "go" which causes the lips to be round). Thus, when you say "cheese", it forces your mouth to be in a position which kind of looks like you are smiling.

Phonetics has even more uses than you might think. Ever think about why your dentist tells you to open your mouth and say "ahhhh"? This is because the "ah" sound is pronounced with the tongue in the back of the mouth, thus preventing your tongue from getting in the way of the dentist's work!

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I feel like I can say cheese and meat while still making the same shape with my mouth. I wonder why they chose CHEESE though. Why not BREEZE or TEASE? I'll get to the bottom of this. Mark my words!

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Anonymous said...

An encyclopedia (formerly called Encyclopedia; Greek ἐγκύκλιος παιδεία, complete 'or' education ') is a particularly rich source. The term "encyclopedia" to refer to detail or a large breadth of topics, such as when a person is said to encyclopedic knowledge. On the other hand, not all the knowledge, but only a summary is presented. The encyclopedia has seen such an over-looking arrangement of knowledge, which establishes a connection. In addition, we find the term "encyclopedia" with many works that deal with only a limited area of ​​expertise or even subject, the specialized encyclopedias.

As the oldest complete encyclopedia Naturalis Historia is from the first century AD. The boundaries were fluid, encyclopedias were the one hand between textbooks and dictionaries on the other. Above all, the great French Encyclopédie (1751-1780), the term "encyclopedia" for a property dictionary has prevailed. Because of the alphabetical arrangement encyclopedias are often referred to as dictionaries, encyclopedias in the history of the find but also many other names.

The present form of reference work has been mainly the 18th Century developed, while there is an extensive dictionary of all property subject to a wide readership. In the 19th Century came the typical neutral-objective style. The encyclopedias have been better structured and included new text, not mere acquisitions of older (foreign) works. One of the best known examples in the German-speaking countries has long been the Brockhaus Encyclopedia (1808), in the English-language Encyclopaedia Britannica (from 1768).

Since the 1980s, encyclopedias are also available in digital form, on CD-ROM and the Internet. Partly it is continuations of older works, in part to new projects. A particular success was the first time in 1993 on CD-ROM published Microsoft Encarta. Founded in 2001, Wikipedia became the largest Internet encyclopedia.

Anonymous said...

He was the son of a baker and was raised as a Protestant, Jesuit Georg Scherer 1573 but converted him to Catholicism. 1579, he was priest himself and shortly afterwards the place of the provost of St. Stephen's in Vienna.

Khlesl was one of the main representatives of the Counter-Reformation. Through his influence the college of the University consisted only of Catholics, and each student had to drop the Catholic faith. In addition, he was vicar general of the Bishop of Passau and conducted as such purges in the parishes and monasteries of Lower Austria. As chancellor of the Emperor Matthias, however, he was resolutely pragmatic and interested in a compromise with the Protestants on the national level.

In 1588 he became bishop of Wiener Neustadt, 1598 Bishop of Vienna and the second December 1615 he was elevated by Pope Paul V in pectore a cardinal in the consistory was on 9 April 1616 was made ​​public. He was assigned as the titular church of Santa Maria degli Angeli, 1623, he joined the Church of San Silvestro in Capite title. To further promote the Counter-Reformation, he promoted the settlement of several medals in Vienna. His growing power was but a thorn in many people, so he was at the instigation of the late Emperor Maximilian, Archduke Ferdinand and the German master, and the Bishop of Brixen on 20 Arrested in June 1618 and spent the Tyrol. After staying in the castle of Ambras in Innsbruck's Hofburg and he was transferred in 1619 to St. George mountain, which meant a transfer from secular jurisdiction in ecclesiastical custody, which was the extraordinary papal nuncio, Fabrizio Verospi initiated. On 21 October 1622 Khlesl was brought to Rome. 1627 he was able to resume the office of bishop in Vienna.

He is buried in St. Stephen's Cathedral, but his heart was buried in the cathedral of Wiener Neustadt.

Anonymous said...

Polycarp's father, Master Kaspar Leyser (born July 20, 1526; † end 1554 in Nürtingen), was a pastor in Winnenden, later in Nürtingen. Sun Polycarp already gained early insight into the theological work of his time. His father came to the side of Jacob Andreae committed to the discipline to lay entirely in the hands of the priest, which would have amounted to establish Gemeindekonsistorien. It maintained contact with both John Calvin, who reserved their ideas but on the policy. After all, they managed to obtain the consent of the Duke Christoph of Württemberg. At the instigation of Johannes Brenz suggested this request fails, however, who warned that abandoning the church Württemberg territorial centralized church discipline.

Polycarp Leyser mother Margaret was a daughter of Tübingen businessman John Jacob Andreae Entringer and one sister. After Kaspar Leyser had died in 1554, his widow married soon Lucas Osiander the Elder. 1556, the family moved to Blaubeuren, where Leyser attended the convent school and grew up with the three sons of his stepfather. In 1562 he moved to the Stuttgart Pädagogium. After the death of his mother, his stepfather sent him in 1566 at the University of Tübingen, where he studied with a scholarship from Duke's Protestant theology.

In Tübingen he met Giles Hunnius know the elder, with whom he soon shared a deep friendship. 1570 he received his degree of Master of Arts, and shortly after became Stiftsrepetent. Theologically, he was influenced during this period, especially by Jacob Heerbrand Andreae Dietrich Schnepf. Leyser was characterized by excellent exam results. Therefore, it was already publicly Andreae 1572 dispute over the doctrine of justification. Beginning of the year 1573 he was ordained, and he became a parish in the Lower Austrian Göllersdorf. Here he entered the Imperial Council, and Michael Lewis of Erbtruchsess Puchheim (1512-1580) in combination that made him familiar with the court life of Maximilian II. Soon we became aware of him in Graz and wanted to win it for local tasks, however, advised against Osiander and Puchheim. Instead, he returned to Tübingen, where he was on 16 July 1576, graduated with his doctorate in theology Hunnius friend. Leyser initially had only limited job prospects, what should change soon, however.

Anonymous said...

He came from a secondary branch of the famous Silesian knight Schweinichen sex with the pig house castle as headquarters, attended the village school in the family estate Mertschiitz, came to Liegnitz in 1562 and attended school in 1566 the Gold Mountain. A couple of years he spent at the castle as a page of the Duke of Liegnitz insane deposed Duke Friedrich III .. Then he accompanied his father, the captain of the George circle of Schweinichen Goldberger, on his mission before he entered the service of Duke Henry XI. came from Legnica. Once this has been arrested because of its high debt to imperial command in 1581, Schweinichen lived as a farmer on rented property, but managed to end his life, recover Mertschiitz.

After Henry's death in 1588 he entered the service of his younger brother Frederick IV, who died in 1596th Even his successor, the Duke Joachim Friedrich Brieger, he served as marshal and steward. This office he managed eventually to his death in 1602 used government guardianship. As an old man, he sold the estate Mertschiitz, and settled in Legnica, where he purchased a house. Schweinichen was buried beside his Piast gentlemen in the Court Church (St John's Church), his grave stone but disappeared during a renovation of the church in the 18th Century.

Anonymous said...

Rudolf was the son of Emperor Maximilian II and Maria of Spain. His younger brothers were serious (subsequently particular governor in the Netherlands), Matthias (Emperor) Maximilian (Master of the German Order, Governor of Western Austria), Albrecht (Archbishop of Toledo, later governor of the Netherlands), Wenzel (Grand Prior of St John of Castile) . He also had six sisters. Through the marriage of Anna, he was with Philip II of Spain and Elizabeth with King Charles IX. of France by marriage,

The first years he spent at the court of Emperor Ferdinand I and Maximilian II, the latter fell out of the family context, as he inclined to Protestantism. From the artistically inspiring atmosphere at the court he was left a lasting impression. [1] In order to protect against Rudolf Protestant influences, in particular urged Philip II to separate him from his father's farm. So he lived with his brother Ernst 1563-1571 on strict Catholic court in Spain. Besides the concern for a Catholic education, played on other aspects of family policies play a role. They should tensions between the Austrian and the Spanish branch of the Hapsburgs, about how they were visible in Italy, will be mitigated. Since at this time of Philip II, but the force is not capable of governing as Don Carlos had no male heirs, the possibility existed that Rudolf had to take this heritage. Another reason was that he was soon engaged to the Infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia was.

Anonymous said...

Paolo Sarpi OSM (August 14, 1552 in Venice, † January 15, 1623) was an Italian monk and historian.

He belonged to the Order of Servite, became a member of the Quorum of Padua, came in his 26th Years as Provincial of his Order in Rome and later became a General. He drew the hatred of the Pope, when he was accused by the Inquisition of secret contacts with Protestants. He maintained contact with Giovanni Diodati, his hundreds of copies of his translations of the Bible sent from Geneva.

In the dispute with Pope Paul V, the Republic of Venice made ​​him a theological adviser. He defended the freedom of secular governments against the papal authority so decisively and boldly, that he was placed by the Pope in the spell. Several attacks on his life prompted him to retire to a monastery in Venice, where he remained until his death.

As a critic of papal power and the Jesuits, he came in a close proximity to Protestantism. He had a full scholarship. His main work is the Istoria del Concilio Tridentino who wants to prove that the alleged violation prevented the unification of Protestants with the Catholic Church at the Council of Trent only by the intrigues of the Curia. (This text was translated into French by Giovanni Diodati.)

Historical value are also his letters. Known is the correspondence with Francesco Castrino, who was at the French court.

Anonymous said...

Cesare d'Este (born October 8, 1552; † December 11, 1628) was the eldest son of Alfonso d'Este (1527-1587), Margrave of Montecchio, an illegitimate son of Duke Alfonso I d'Este of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio.

Since the (legitimate) main line with Alfonso II d'Este would die out, put this one as his cousin Cesare heirs. As the regulation of the death of Alfonso II on 27 October 1597 should be effective, because they saw Pope Clement VIII, born out of wedlock birth, not by Alfonso Montecchios on, pulled Ferrara as a fief been discharged in 1598 and incorporated it in the Papal States. In the imperial fiefs of Modena and Reggio Cesare could take up his reign.

Cesare married on 6 February 1586 Virginia de 'Medici (born 28 May 1568; † January 15, 1615), daughter of Grand Duke Cosimo I of Tuscany. The couple had ten children:

Anonymous said...

Sötefleisch had visited the schools in Seesen, Hildesheim, Brunswick and Goslar. In 1569 he was awarded by Duke Julius of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel a scholarship, set to his education at the monastery Riddagshausen and 1571 at the boarding school in Gandersheim away, where he also began Kantor wurde.1574 he graduated from the University of Helmstedt, was 1575 cantor in Dannenberg (same), 1576, he returned with two young nobles at the University of Helmstedt, where he was on 25 April 1577 the degree of Master of Arts acquired.

After he became a rector in Burg (near Magdeburg), 1579 in Helmstedt, he was professor of Greek language. On 8 February 1581 he assumed the professorship of dialectics and ethics, and was twice Dean of the Faculty of Arts. In 1587 he was made ​​of Tilemann Hesshus successor as professor of theology, that in 1588 the General Office of the Principality and visitations of the county Hoya. In 1589 he became General Superintendent of the country in Göttingen Munden. In 1600 he was transferred to Uslar as general superintendent in 1608 and Super General Inter Dent between Deister and the county line and Hoya. He opposed the Catholics, Calvinists, and other Metaphysten meandering and ragged ghosts.

From his 1582 marriage contracted four sons and five daughters have emerged. His son Johann Sötefleisch the Younger (1591-1651) also gained importance.

Anonymous said...

Ernestus Mergentheim was in Franconia, the son of Count Hohenlohe Hettenbach secretary Balthazar and his wife Anna née Ploechinger born († March 23, 1580 in Wittenberg). Barely three years old, he lost his father at an early stage. Then his mother moved the family to Wittenberg, where they had found a job as a school mistress to the young women's school. She held her young Ernestus, diligently on the Wittenberg town school to hold its exercises. So could the Ernestus together with his brothers George and Michael second October 1562 at the University of Wittenberg matriculated. Since the mother is only 20 guilders, a silver shock, 2 pence quarterly allowance of each student, 12 bushels of corn, 15 cocks and 15 ß ß zip collar, as well as free housing in annual income had. She was allowed her three sons George, Michael and Ernestus, instead of the usual four pennies per person registration fee, to enroll them for a dime for every three children. Ernestus, which was funded by Andreas Schato had purchased at the Faculty of Philosophy in 1576 the degree of Master of Arts, took first in the same year a post as schoolmaster. He then married on 24 November 1578 Mary Dennewitz.

Extract from funeral sermon: "He has the omnipotent yhn sailed with a genet erwünschsten marriage in which he anno 24, 1578 Novembri has gone with the honorable and virtuous Jungfrawen Mary, Mr. Bennewitz Electoral Saxon office of alderman Wurtz marriage with the daughter he has in the gelebet 50.Jahr in good peace ... "

After 1585 he has worked as a janitor, he received a scholarship in 1586 at the Medical Faculty of the University, where, after the Doctor of Philosophy, 20 April 1591 earned his doctorate in medicine on the subject of scurvy. After his patron Schato 1592, at the medical faculty was changed, transferred to Hettenbach his professorship of physics, which he held only briefly. As a professor of medicine Salomon Alberti 1593 had gone to the Electoral Court as physician, Hettenbach moved to third on medical professor at the medical faculty. After the death of Franz Faber, held a second medical professorship and moved after the death of his support Schato on its first professor and was the senior member of the faculty.

During his university medical activities, he took on 21 April 1610 on the first scientifically documented cesarean section in the history of medicine in part. This was done, the surgeon Jeremias Trautmann with the assistance of a second surgeon Christoph Seesth to a woman who had already been used in the contractions. Under the eyes of Daniel Sennert, this process has been documented, Tobias Tandler, Blanchett Bach, the archdeacon of the Wittenberg city church master Heinrich Silbermann, two midwives and other respectable women performed this operation at eight clock. After the Caesarean section was done, Hettenbach Sennert and took over the sponsorship of the child. Hettenbach wrote further works on even catarrh, on pain of gout and also about the lack of treatment, symptoms of syphilis.

Hettenbach also participated in the organizational tasks of the university. After he had several times been dean of the medical and philosophical faculties, he took over in the winter semester of 1595 and 1609, the rector of the university, as well as the Pro-Rector's equally important in the winter semester 1601, 1603 and 1615. In September 1616 he retired for health reasons from the University service and died on 2 Oktober 1616th Especially his contemporaries praised his perseverance to work and his love for peace and tolerance. On 6 October, he was buried in the Castle Church in Wittenberg, where he held the Frederick Baldwin funeral sermon, which was also published in print. In his honor was erected an epitaph, which is located in highly weathered condition, on the outside of the Castle Church. The text on the epitaph reads:

Anonymous said...

Shortly after the end of his apprenticeship left his hometown of Aachen in 1574 and traveled south to Italy. There he moved first to Venice, and he found work with a native of Antwerp painter and art dealer Gaspar Rem and support the local community in northern European merchants and artists. Even within a year traveled from Aachen to Rome. He arrived at the home of Anthony Santvoort below, where he refined through exchanges with other artists as Bartholomeus Spranger and Hans Speckaert his technique and found his own style. Although delivered in van Mander is that of Aachen has painted a lot in this time are mainly drawings from this period have been preserved.

Meanwhile in Italy from Aachen tied a broad network of contacts with other artists, dealers and customers. He has developed over the 1580s was a valued painter, the outstanding orders. In 1585 he worked in Florence at the court of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, Francesco I de 'Medici. The job of portraying the Grand Duke was crucial to his rise to the painter. Of Aachen's early portraits, with their loose brush strokes and the brownish color palette still strongly influenced by northern European painting. Today in the Wallraf-Richartz Museum, this self-portrait of around 1574 is a good example. The combination of Northern and Southern European influences, which shows itself in works of Aachen at the end of his Italian period, is characteristic of his later paintings. Another theme that runs through his entire career from Aachen, is the genre painting. He often uses his own, smiling face, usually well recognized by the bad teeth, in pairs or representations of rendered Kuppeleiszenen.

Anonymous said...

Šimon came from a poor background, schools attended in Krumlov and gained popularity through his eagerness to learn the school's founder, Wilhelm von Rosenberg, who patronized him and later gave the place of a teacher. He studied at the Jesuit school in Hradec Jindřichův and was then seven years as a brewery in Trebon administrator Schreiber and his Protegisten. In 1585 he inherited an inn, which developed under his leadership prosperous. By the Emperor Rudolf II, he was elevated to the peerage in 1594 and was appointed poet laureate. 1619 he lost his property by fire and the village where he was bailiff, was destroyed by the imperial armies. He went to Prague and joined the Protestants. His career ended after the Battle of White Mountain. Although returned to the Catholic faith, was sentenced to a punishment of 100 blows and chased from the farm. His life now as he eked out a beggar and died impoverished in 1623 completely.

Anonymous said...

1533 Greselius Rees and was pulled after Canon. The renowned humanist and cleric who despite the great distance for that time, the connection to his hometown never demolished. The importance Gresel beyond his time to the 20th Century, particularly in the economic magnitude of his legacy in Bramsche visible.

In his will he decreed, among other things a family and a poor foundation and the establishment of a hospice house and a Latin and elementary school for boys and girls, along with housing and 20 guilders a year for the teacher.

Greselius has defined the nature and scope of teaching and the conditions for hiring and firing of teachers in detail. They should be selected from the offspring of his parents and elected. Unless he is supposed to come from this family, he had to promise to marry a girl from the family Gresel and call themselves after marriage or Greselius Chreselius. This tradition held until 1917, with the teacher and Cantor Henry Kaiser (1842-1946) Inventory.

His grave inscription wishing him, that he might spread in the Westphalian darkness light.

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Sprawled on a bed, a naked young woman lies with reddish-brown, her hair. Her upper body she has on the left of the picture half erect leaning against some pillows white, while she supports her right arm. The left hand covers her lap, by lying on her right thigh. In this posture, with head held high, not only the young woman turns her upper body but her face open to the viewer, like a portrait. Her buttocks and the crossed legs resting on a cream-colored, on the edge with elaborate golden flowers and fringes decorated cloth, a part of the white bedding covers. A corner of this cloth she recorded with her right hand. Laterally under the bedcovers, the dark red upholstery of the bed can be seen. The young woman wearing only some accessories on her body: Her hair is decorated with a large pink orchid. On her neck she wears a teardrop-shaped pearl, which is held by a narrow black band, which is similar to a ribbon tied in a bow. To fit the pearl earrings her understated. The right forearm is enclosed by a broad gold bracelet, to which a trailer is attached. Dainty slippers made their footwear, but the right slipper fell on the bed so that the right foot remains bare. But he is by the overturning of the legs from the left foot together with concealed his slipper.
Behind the bed is easy to prevent a black woman holding her breast in front of one wrapped in white paper, lush, colorful flowers. She turns and looks at the woman lying on her. She is dressed in a pink robe and a red scarf. At the foot of the bed a little black cat stands with high emporgerecktem tail, which looks at the viewer directly, with their bright eyes.

Anonymous said...

The coloring of the image is limited to a few shades. The range is essentially limited to white, black, a dark green to blue continuous, one gold and reddish brown, and beige for the skin of the woman portrayed and the cloth on which it lies. It contrasts the dominant white of the bed, which corresponds to the white of the floral paper, together with the pale skin of the woman lying against the very dark, sometimes dark tones of the room furnishings, the dark skin of the woman holding the flowers and the black cat. The outline of the cat and the head of this woman almost disappear against the dark background of the curtains. Through this strong light-dark contrast creates a horizontal division of the image that breaks through the line and the vertical of the golden curtain folds in the background.
The pink orchid in the footwall of the hair is taken up in several levels of brightness of the red flowers of some of the ostrich, the pattern of the cloth on the bed, the red scarf of the woman behind the bed and in the dark red upholstery of the bed again. Even the blue-leaning slightly into the dark green curtains finds a counterpart in the leaves of the bouquet, the pattern of the cloth, the greenish shade of bedding and packaging as well as the flowers in the lightly green-tinted border of the slippers.

The composition repeats a triangle shape can be recognized: the left beneath the upper body of the young woman interrupts the dark red triangle of the bed padding the brightness of bedding that dominates the lower half. This form repeats itself just as clearly outlined in the upper corner of the wallpaper from the brown contrasting white pillow on which the young woman rests, and is continued by the bright line of her left upper arm. The momentum thus generated starts in the upper left corner of the green arc of the curtain draped in a triangle near a backlash coming on again. On the other side, the upper body of the woman carrying flowers along with her right arm and falling on the other side contour of her dress, another big bright triangle. The two by the shoulders and the arms of the women described inside pages of major triangle shapes lead together with the gold-colored vertical in their midst, and the resulting from the superposed legs line to the secret of her hand triangle of shame the young woman to Thus, the optical center of the composition is.

The painting style of the image is very flat. Manet largely dispensed with the traditional, carefully graded, dimensional modeling of the motive. In some areas, the colors already solved by the shape of the object to which they belong. This is particularly evident in the large, like a still life bouquet acting within the picture that begins to disintegrate into splashes of color. Herein announces the coming of the Impressionist style, is regarded as the pioneer Edouard Manet.

Anonymous said...

People consume a variety of reasons since several thousand years drugs. Critical views on the use of specific drugs, it was already proven in pre-Christian times (eg the prohibition of bacchanalia by the Roman Senate). Drugs that were used in a culture in religious ceremonies or medical treatments were not allowed at the same time in different social cultures.

Regulated in Germany in the 16th Century, a food regulatory provision dealing with drugs. 1516 the Bavarian Purity Law of permitted ingredients put firmly in the beer that include the highly toxic and hallucinogenic plant henbane no longer allowed to be added to the German beer. There were bans in other countries, such as efforts in the 18th Century opium consumption in China and import ban. England began this reason, two wars with China. During the Second Opium War (1856-1860) England won the withdrawal of the opium ban.
"Hemp insert" in the 19th Century

In the 19th Century scientists first isolated compounds such as morphine, cocaine and caffeine. These materials were distributed by the pharmaceutical companies until the 1920s globally. First restrictions on some materials were already in force in Germany. In 1901, the Reichstag enacted a provision for the delivery of morphine in pharmacies. In the period 1909 to 1925, some international opium and drug abuse conferences were conducted. The conferences in Shanghai (1909), The Hague (1912, 1913, 1914) led to the first legal regulations in Germany (1920). The first conference in The Hague (1912) found, in the opinion of the American sociologist, JR Gusfield, the prelude to the "symbolic crusade against drugs" dar. [6] Four years after the two Geneva Opium Conferences (1924-25) is Germany 1929 to the international regulations in its own opium law. Other international narcotics agreements followed by the second World War II.

Anonymous said...

The German Opium Act was only 42 years later, regardless of the law superseded the traffic in narcotics (BTM Act, 1971). In the overall context of the historical development of the Opium Act Narcotics Act is to be noted that the Federal Republic of Germany is not free, what goals they want to pursue in the area of ​​drug policy. It is rather a series of agreements under the United Nations (UN) bound (see table below).

The drug policy was up to the mid-sixties in relation to other policy areas, a very small and often overlooked social policy area. Largely because of the small number of socially prominent drug users was the Opium Act, a law without acute persecution reality. Correspondingly low, the number of persons convicted under the Opium Act. In the early sixties of the last century the number was two to three sentences per week (which were 100-150 per year) throughout the Federal Republic of Germany.

The importance of the drug and especially the cannabis policy changed abruptly in the late sixties. This happened against the background of international development (international agreements) and especially the perceived in the United States' youth drug problem. " In Germany, gave the press after the lurid model in the United States of America, from the late sixties, the impression of a huge "hashish and drug wave" that threatened to overrun the country. At the same time was marked out in the public mind the image of a dramatic social problem, which was also associated with the supposedly most important domestic political event of that time together, that is mainly carried by student protest movement, which from 1966 to 1969 "Extra-Parliamentary Opposition (APO) "had been formed.

Against this background, the legislature (German Bundestag and Bundesrat) in December 1971, the Opium Act of 10 December 1929, which regulated primarily the administrative control of medical care for the population with opium, morphine and other narcotics, with a new "Law on the traffic in narcotics (Narcotics Act, the Narcotics Act)" shall be replaced.

Anonymous said...

The reasons for any drug use, a history of drug use and drug dependence are different. In this context also the reasons for drug-related crime. Initial contacts with illegal drugs usually take place in a part of life that is characterized by stress-prone phases. The use of intoxicants does at this stage for children and youth psychosocial functions. This allows the use of illegal drugs, for example, access is possible to open cliques serve to satisfy curiosity or to be a form of social protest.

Development of addiction or a dependence on drugs has always been a story. Affected mostly consumed at the beginning of a gateway drug. In heavy drug abuse or dependence after the onset of the person can not pursue a regulated or restricted life. In science, there are various explanations and theories concerning the development of addiction. The best known model for the development of addiction is multi-factor model and cause (so-called triangle of addiction Kielholz & Ladewig, 1973). It takes into account the three main components narcotics, environment and people.

As concerns the relationship between drug addiction and crime, there are several scientific studies. However, the current state of research does not generally valid statements about the relationship between drug structure and delinquency. Delinquency and substance abuse, drug use and criminal career may not be available in a causal connection but develop out of a total to be designated as deviant, deviating from social norms and values ​​of life. The fact that criminal law is in general and in particular custodial sanctions to prevent future crimes only of limited use is now considered certain knowledge criminological

Anonymous said...

The science, therefore, uses so-called dark-field studies, such as the study of adolescent drug affinity of the Federal Centre for Health Education (BZgA) in order to make precise statements about the extent of drug-related crime. Basically, however, such surveys can also be a final assessment of the number of crimes actually committed.

Drug consumption in Germany is, according to the BZgA study (2004) on adolescent drug affinity, mainly cannabis. Cannabis products like marijuana and hashish were 31 percent of 12 - to 25-year-olds taken in Germany before (see diagram). A further finding of the BZgA study is that for many young illegal drugs are common knowledge. Half (49%) of 12 - to 25-year-old has already got offered drugs. A third (32%) in this age group has ever tried drugs or even several times taken.

The results of the study correlate with BZgA two international studies on unreported. On the one hand with the WHO study [12] "Health Behavior in School-aged Children" (HBSC, 2002), in some states, the health and health behaviors of students of the 5th to 9 Class of all types of schools examined. Furthermore, with the so-called ESPAD study [13] (European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Drugs) of the Institute for Therapy Research (IFT) from the year 2003.

Anonymous said...

The international drug trade is assigned to the area of ​​organized crime. Sales of illegally selling drugs is estimated at several hundred million U.S. dollars. Comparable achieved, according to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), the global oil business just the same turnover. According to statements of the Federal Intelligence Service, the international drug trafficking offense, the most important field of organized crime in which more than half of all worldwide sales of organized crime is to be made ​​[14]. The drug routes running through international distributors, national distributors, middlemen and addicts to consumers (see Fig drug trafficking pyramid).

In Europe, until the end of the 20th Century, the business of drug mafia drug cartels of the Cosa Nostra, Camorra and 'Ndrangheta controls. In the U.S. it was the La Cosa Nostra (particularly through the connivance of the Sicilian Cosa Nostra Pizza Connection), in Asia it was the Triads and the Yakuza, the Middle East, Lebanon and South America Connection, the Cartell de Cocaina.

The involvement of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency in the international drug trade has been proven several times in public. The American History Professor Alfred W. McCoy, for example, in his book "The CIA and the heroin," described the involvement of U.S. intelligence in the drug trade in detail. (see # drug trafficking intelligence)

Known cases of organized drug crime

In the past there were always a lot of media interest when known drug dealers, for example, were arrested from South America and the United States. In subsequent court proceedings the accused persons, the dimensions of the international drug trade became apparent. Individual protagonists who were brought to justice, achieved fame. For example:

Anonymous said...

In 2005, according to UNODC figures in Afghanistan prepared 30-000 hectares of arable land for the cultivation of cannabis. This is about one-third of the acreage in Morocco, the world's largest producers of cannabis. [15]

Afghanistan won in recent years the cultivation of opium poppies again increasing in importance. The Gross Domestic Product (2002) was produced equally by the opium trade. The largest part of the international opium poppy crops in Afghanistan is today. In 2005, estimates were approximately 61% of the opiates produced in Afghanistan through Iran and Pakistan about 20% on the international market.

After the "Afghanistan Opium Survey 2005" of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in 2005 compared to 2004, opium poppy cultivation by 21% on a lower surface (104 000 ha). This is the first reduction in acreage since 2001 put dar. relativized to this success, however, by increasing productivity. In 2005, the earnings fell compared to last year so only by 2.5% to 4100 tons. It follows that in 2005 Afghanistan had share of global opium production almost no change. With 87% of global production in 2005 was Afghanistan's largest opium producer continues [16].

The UNODC's analysis of satellite imagery and ground surveys shortly before the 2006 harvest show that the opium poppy cultivation in comparison with 2005 has increased by 59%. 2006 were grown in Afghanistan to the UNODC information on about 165,000 ha of agricultural land opium poppy. The Vienna office UNODC estimates that by the year 2006 approximately 6,100 tonnes of opium extracted from the harvested opium poppy capsules. Afghanistan's opium production is increased so that the world at 92%.

In Afghanistan, for this reason since 2002, built with international assistance, the "Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan" (CNPA).

Anonymous said...

Coca cultivation is one of the main sectors of Bolivia, especially in the Chapare and Yungas regions. Coca in Bolivia is not only a raw material for cocaine, but is supported by the local population as a tea (mate de coca) or used for chewing. Between 40,000 and 60,000 families (approx. 86%) in the Chapare region live from growing coca. The cocaine business is in Bolivia annual 1.5 to 2 billion dollars by the majority of them remain in the U.S. is estimated between $ 500 and 700 million land. This corresponded in 1997 about one third of the value of legal exports. For all the uncertainty about the actual extent of the profits from the coca-cocaine industry can be said with relative certainty that these are still substantial. The drug and Kokawirtschaft creates the face of high unemployment, low wages and an economic crisis aggravated employment and income for a significant portion of the total population of 8 million people [17]. To the coca cultivation, a violent dispute between the government and the coca farmers has erupted that led to the chaotic political situation with 2002-2003. The leader of the so-called cocaleros, Evo Morales, joined in the presidential election in 2003 as a candidate, but nearly defeated in the runoff. In the elections on 18 December 2005, he received 53.7% of the votes cast and was therefore elected President.

On 1 July 2001, Bolivia withdrew from the international drug convention to secure the rights of local people on their coca leaves. However, the State intends to first January 2012, the Convention Article 49 without the sign again, which deals inter alia with the coca-chewing

Anonymous said...

It's also the one who according to § 29 et seq punishable, the only drug buys in small quantities for personal consumption has, etc. According to § § 31a and 29 V in these cases, however, the prosecutor or the court to close the case or of punishment . refrain A claim to this is not. The prosecutors and the courts decide instead of the individual case to case. An unconditional cessation is usually not an option, if the act has led to a foreign threat.

Mitigation of punishment under § 31 may affect the offender's information on complicity of other persons, if this action on his own contribution to the offense also may be uncovered or planned actions can be prevented.

With § 37 of the Narcotics Act the prosecutor offers the possibility to temporarily refrain from bringing an indictment if the act was committed because of drug addiction, no higher penalty is to be expected as a prison sentence of up to two years and the offender undergoes treatment and to expect his rehabilitation. Under the same circumstances can also charge the court with the consent of the prosecutor closed the case provisionally. Meet the above requirements are not, the process continues.

In other settings, methods come under the general rules of criminal procedure or in adolescents and young adults under the Juvenile Court Act into consideration.

After a comparative study of the Max-Planck-Institute for Foreign and International Criminal Law in the states there is an unequal legal practice in proceedings setting according to § 31 Narcotics Act. [23] In North Rhine-Westphalia is used for example in the procedures governing the handling of other illicit drugs (heroin, cocaine and amphetamine, etc.) refer to an application of § 31a BtMG only in exceptional cases considered. Because of the special health risks and the educational ideas come from young people and adolescent defendants a setting for a small amount is usually subject to conditions as defined in § 45 paragraph 2 JGG considered.

Anonymous said...

Designed by John Dumas Kelly Bag is made of a leather body with a trapezoidal, upwardly tapered shape and a rectangular ground floor. The individual parts are either joined together so that the leather is just at the seams to the outside faces, resulting in very clear and straight edges, or with seams running inwändigen that are invisible from the outside, but are less strict edges. The side walls of the bag are in the closed state once folded inwards so that the flat on top tapering, but wide open can. The short curved handle, with the Kelly bag is worn on the arm is movably connected by metal rings with the rollover and when you open the bag folded backwards.

The rollover is at its lower end on the right and left fluted rectangular - this takes the sewn on the back and sides by the folds of the side walls guided closure Belt over the rough, which is closed in the middle of rollover, and so the front of the bag with the flap and the closure belt firmly connects. The bag stands on four little metal feet, which are mounted in the corners on the bottom. Inside the bag depending on the model has one or more inner compartments. Are to each pocket is a small padlock, whose key with a matching key case ("Clochette") provided and attached to a leather strap that wrap around the handles of the bag to be. [8] [1]

The Kelly bag is produced in five sizes from various domestic and exotic leathers such as crocodile, alligator, buffalo, lizard and ostrich leather, sharkskin or calfskin, cowhide, or goatskin. Occasionally varies Hermès classic materials, originated in the early 1990s, a Silk Scarf Kelly bag, which consisted of the well by Hermès produced silk scarves, and in 2000 the Kelly Doll, in the bag with the face and attached arms and legs into a doll was transformed. Beginning of 2011 brought out the Hermès Kelly Bag Picnic, a new variant of the Kelly bag with a body made of wicker with leather flap. The Picnic by Hermès Kelly was advertised with photographs "edible" Kelly bags, which, inspired by the paintings of Arcimboldo show, from foods modeled forms and details of the Kelly bag. [4] [9] [10]

A variant design produced as early as 1960, the Kelly Bag Sport, which has a higher, slimmer basic form without flashover and is provided with a shoulder strap

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